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A data diode is a network component that allows data to flow through the device in one direction only. It is named in analogy to the electronic diode circuit component that allows current to flow in one direction only.
Data diodes are used to segregate networks. Data diodes are critical components of the most secure “cross domain solutions”, where combinations of one-way flow control and careful content inspection are used to ensure malware cannot cross the boundary from an untrusted to a trusted network.